b'The Grammar of Subject Headings / SubdivisionsAdjectives with NounsOften a specific concept is best expressed by a noun with an adjective, such as Unemploymentinsurance or Buddhist art. In the past the expression was frequently inverted (Insurance,Unemployment; Art, Buddhist). There were two possible reasons for inversion: 1) an assumptionwas made that the searcher would think first of the noun; or 2) the noun was placed first in order tokeep all aspects of a broad subject together in an alphabetical listing, as in a card catalog. In recentyears these arguments have been abandoned in favor of the direct order because users have becomemore and more accustomed to searching in the order of natural language. The only headings thathave been retained in Sears in the inverted form are proper names, including the names of battlesand massacres.Phrase HeadingsSome concepts that involve two or more elements can be expressed only by more or less complexphrases. These are the least satisfactory headings, as they offer the greatest variation in wording, areoften the longest, and may not be thought of readily by either the maker or the user of the catalog,but for many topics the English language seems to offer no more compact terminology. Examplesare Insects as carriers of disease and Violence in popular culture.SUBDIVISIONSSpecific entry in subject headings is achieved in two basic ways. The first, as noted above, is thecreation of narrower terms as needed. The second is the use of subdivisions under an establishedterm to designate aspects of that term, such as BirdsEggs or FoodAnalysis, or the form ofthe item itself, such as AgricultureBibliography. The scope of the Sears List can be expandedfar beyond the actual headings printed through the use of subdivisions. Some subdivisions areapplicable to only a few subjects. Eggs, for example, is applicable only under headings foroviparous animals. Other subdivisions, such as Analysis, are applicable under many subjects. Stillother subdivisions, such as Bibliography, are applicable under nearly any heading. The Sears Listdoes not attempt to list all possible subdivisions, but all those that are most likely to be used in asmall library are included. For every subdivision included there is an instruction in the List for theuse of that subdivision. Some subdivisions are also headings, such as Bibliography, and in suchcases the instruction is given in a general reference as part of the entry for that heading. Othersubdivisions, such as Economic aspects, are not themselves headings, and in such cases theinstruction for the use of the subdivision is a free-standing general reference in the alphabetical List.Topical SubdivisionsTopical subdivisions are those subdivisions that brings out the aspect of a subject or point of viewpresented in a particular work. A work may be a history of the subject, as in Clothing and dress -History; or it may deal with the philosophy of the subject, as in ReligionPhilosophy; researchin the field, as in OceanographyResearch; the laws about it, as in Automobiles - Law andlegislation; or how to study or teach the subject, as in MathematicsStudy and teaching. TheA-28'