b'The Grammar of Subject Headings / Subdivisionsthing is found, as dealt with in the work being cataloged, such in Italian artGreat Britain orAmerican authorsParis (France).Geographic subdivisions can be either direct or indirect. The Sears List uses the direct form ofsubdivision, whereby topics are subdivided directly by cities, counties, metropolitan areas, etc., as inTheaterParis (France) or HospitalsChicago (Ill.). The indirect form of subdivision, usedby the Library of Congress and certain other subject heading systems, interposes the name of thecountry or state (the larger geographic area) between the topical subject and the smaller area, as inTheaterFranceParis and HospitalsIllinoisChicago.Chronological SubdivisionsIn any catalog, large or small, there will be many works on American history. If these works are allentered under the general heading United StatesHistory, the library user is required to lookthrough many entries to find materials about any specific period of American history. Chronologicalsubdivisions, which correspond to generally accepted periods of a countrys history or to the spansof time most frequently treated in the literature, make such a search much simpler by bringingtogether all works on a single period of history, such as United StatesHistory1945-1953. Ifa chronological period has been given a name, this name is included in the heading following thedates, as in United StatesHistory1600-1775, Colonial period.Historical periods vary from one country to another and usually correspond to major dynastic orgovernmental changes. The Sears List includes chronological subdivisions only for those countriesabout which a small library is likely to have much historical material, with the greatest number ofperiod subdivisions under United States, Canada, Great Britain, France, Germany, and Italy,and a few subdivisions only under several other countries. Whenever there is only a small amount ofmaterial on the history of a country, it should simply be entered under the name of the country withthe subdivision History, without a chronological subdivision. For most small libraries in NorthAmerica the heading TurkeyHistory will suffice for all historical material about Turkey, eventhough Turkey has a very long history. If, however, a library should acquire a large amount ofhistorical material about any such country or region, period subdivisions should be establishedbeyond those spelled out in the Sears List. For these the cataloger may wish to consult LC PeriodSubdivisions under Names of Places.The subdivision Politics and government under countries should be reserved for general andtheoretical material. Historical material on the politics and government of a country are enteredunder the name of the country subdivided by History with or without a further chronologicalsubdivision. Other kinds of subjects, especially those relating to literature and the arts, may also besubdivided chronologically as appropriate, usually by century.Form SubdivisionsThe most common item found in a library is an expository prose treatise on a subject. Many works,however, present their material in other forms, such as lists, tables, maps, pictures, etc. FormA-30'